FORDA alleges corruption in SR recruitment at Safdarjang Hospital

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Resident doctors’ welfare bodies have alleged that there were irregularities in the recruitment of senior resident doctors at the Centre-run Safdarjung Hospital, a charge dismissed by the hospital administration.

The Federation of Resident Doctors Association (FORDA), that works for the welfare of resident doctors all over India, and the AIIMS Resident Doctors’ Association have alleged that the hospital administration violated the norm of mandatory written examination in the recruitment procedure.

More than 500 resident doctors had applied for over 200 posts of senior resident doctors in different departments advertised by the hospital administration.

The AIIMS RDA has also written to Prime Minister Narendra Modi seeking a CBI inquiry into the matter to “eliminate the chronic disease of corruption which is paralysing health system of India”.

The letter states that the recruitment was done at a short notice instead of giving at least 15 days time. It claims that the posts were advertised on September 4 and direct walk-in interviews were conducted on September 11.

In a letter addressed to the medical superintendent dated September 8, the Union health ministry had also asked the hospital to follow the process of written examination for the selection of senior resident doctors.

“The hospital should follow the method of written examination for the selection of senior residents. This is in line with the practice being followed in the selection of senior residents in Safdarjung as well as other central government hospitals in the past,” the letter stated.

Dr A K Rai, the Medical Superintendent of the hospital, however, dismissed the allegations saying written examination is not mandatory and there are no set guidelines for the recruitment process.

“Does FORDA have any proof for their allegations. The charges are baseless,” he said.

FORDA President Dr Vivek Chouksey alleged that the hospital administration directly conducted interviews without holding the written exam.

The FORDA also alleged that the administration violated the 40-year age limit, set by the health ministry for recruitment of senior residents, by reducing it to 33 years.

“We demand that the health ministry conducts an inquiry into the matter. There is a huge corruption going on in the recruitment of senior resident doctors and assistant professors,” Chouksey alleged.

“The Prime Minister has emphasised that recruitment of government employees should be through written examination and not direct interviews. However the Safdarjung hospital authorities violated it,” he said.

Pediatrics JR ends life due to stress

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A 26-year-old resident doctor with the VS Hospital was found dead from her hostel room on Monday morning. Dr Meghavi Patel, 26, an MD (paediatrics) student, had injected self with a compound, suspected to be anaesthetic agent. Police said that a note found from her pin-board mentioned stress related to work and study along with her ailment as reason for her extreme step.

According to Ellisbridge police, the sweeper at the residential hostel for PG students of NHL Medical College had approached Meghavi’s room as per routine at 9.30am on Monday. When she did not respond after repeated banging, the nearby residents were called on the spot and the door was forced open when Meghavi was found on her bed unconscious. She was taken to the VS Hospital where she was declared dead.

“Meghavi had done her MBBS from the same institution. Daughter of a senior government official, she had got married to Dr Vishal Patel, an MD (radiologist) currently working in Surendranagar, eight months ago. They had got engaged three years ago. Her father-in-law is a paediatrician having his hospital in Asarva. Her colleagues said that she was on duty in the hospital till 10pm on Sunday,” said an Ellisbridge police official.

Investigators said that a note from her pin-board in her room was found in which she had written that no one is responsible for her death. She wrote that she was ending life due to stress and ailment. K M Chavda, in-charge ACP, M Division, said that Meghavi was suffering from spinal TB and her treatment was going on.

Dr Sandeep Malhan, superintendent of the VS Hospital, added that she had cited stress as a reason as the masters students have to work as residential doctors in addition to appearing for an examination every week.

Investigators said that Meghavi had injected self on her wrist and leg with a compound. Chavda said that the postmortem examination is over but they are yet to ascertain the content which she injected. Police could not question her relatives on Monday but they said that they would ask about whether she gave any sign of distress in recent past.

Dean, senior doctors booked for abetting suicide of resident doctor

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Five doctors, including the dean of the Government Medical College (GMC) Surat, were booked in Khatodara police station on Wednesday for allegedly abetting suicide of a 24-year-old resident doctor. The victim had ended life on Tuesday by jumping from an under-construction hospital building on New Civil Hospital (NCH) campus. The accused were also booked under Prevention of Atrocities Act following allegations levelled by father of the deceased.

The complaint was lodged by Dinesh Parmar, 56, deputy engineer in Dakshin Gujarat Vij Company Limited office at Bharuch. Police booked Dr Milan, Dr Naresh Makwana, both senior resident doctors in surgery department, Dr Nimesh Verma, head of surgery, Dr Jayesh Brahmbhatt, dean of GMC, and Dr Ganesh Govekar, head of department of forensic. The accused were booked for abetment of suicide and Prevention of Atrocities Act. Dhaval, 24, son of Parmar, allegedly committed suicide on Tuesday by jumping from ninth floor of the under-construction multispecialty hospital on NCH campus.

In his complaint, Parmar alleged that Dhaval had come to study at GMC Surat one and half month ago in masters of surgery. His senior doctors Milan and Naresh were harassing him mentally and physically, Parmar alleged. They also made caste specific slur for Dhaval and due to their harassment the deceased ended life, the father claimed in his complaint.

4 infants die in an hour in Maharashtra hospital, MNS beats up doc

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Four premature babies, who were admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of a government- run hospital at Amravati in Maharashtra, died in the early hours on Monday.

The parents of the children alleged negligence, after which some activists of the Maharashtra Navnirman Sena beat up one of the doctors, the police said.

The four infants – two male and two female – born prematurely in the last one week were kept in incubators in the ICU of Punjabrao Deshmukh Medical College Hospital, Amravati district collector Abhijeet Bangar said.

Kailas Pundkar, senior inspector of Gagadenagar police station, said, “One baby died due to asphyxia and the body was handed over to the parents. The cause of deaths of other three babies is yet to be ascertained as autopsies are underway.”

Medical education minister Girish Mahajan has ordered inquiry by Amravati civil surgeon, Bangar told PTI.

According to hospital sources, the deaths took place between 1am and 1.30am. As the news spread in the morning, activists of MNS beat up Bhushan Katta, one of the doctors on duty, the police said.

Four infants die in hospital incubator

Four newborn babies died after an alleged short circuit sparked a fire in the incubators where they had been kept at the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Panjabrao Deshmukh Hospital in Amravati on Sunday morning. The local police registered an FIR against the trust-run hospital on Monday evening on the basis of complaints from parents and will establish  the role of culprits, if any, whose negligence led to the deaths. The babies, who were five-days-old and suffering from premature birth-related disorders, were kept under observation in separate incubators before the tragedy struck, the police said.

After the deaths, the babies’ parents created a ruckus in the hospital and refused to accept their bodies. The hospital authorities, however, denied that a short circuit had occurred.

The parents found that something was amiss after observing no movement in their babies and the fact that their skin had reddened. The families have alleged negligence on the part of the hospital.  Angry family members and local MNS workers also roughed up a resident doctor who was on duty.

Superintendent of police Shashikant Satav said a complaint had been filed against the hospital administration.

D.S. Jane, dean of the hospital, said, “The exact cause of death is yet to be ascertained. We have formed a committee and action will be taken against the staff if found guilty.”

Patient’s relative alleges negligence, damage property

The Kasturba police arrested four persons on Monday for thrashing a doctor and ransacking and damaging the property of civic-run Shatabdi Hospital in Kandivli.

According to the Kasturba police, the incident took place on Sunday afternoon.

The arrested, identified as Omkar Jangam, Rajesh Ghadiyal, Krishna Chikimaal and Nikhil Manjrekar, have been charged of assault and criminal intimidation, the police said.

Omkar, the relative of Shankar Jangam, claimed that the hospital delayed in giving him treatment. However, the hospital authorities denied his claims.

The injured doctor, Dr Ketan Parihar (35), is undergoing treatment at Bhagwati Hospital after the patient’s relatives beat him up. His condition is said to be stable.

The police said Omkar bought Shankar, who was suffering from high fever, to the hospital late on Sunday. He got into a verbal feud with the doctors on duty after they informed him that there was delay in bringing in the patient.

“After the doctors realised that Omkar was under the influence of alcohol they asked him to leave. He left the hospital however returned with his friends after midnight. The accused then beat up Dr Ketan one of the doctors on duty,” said Senior Police Inspector Rajendra Thakur of Kasturba police station.

“The four damaged the hospital property and took Shankar with them,” Thakur added.

The police approached first Shankar and after questioning him arrested Omkar who later revealed the names of his friends.

Dr Sudhir Vyas, chief medical officer, Shatabadi Hospital, said, “Shankar was suffering from fever and was brought to the casualty department. He was admitted to the general ward at 12.40 am on Monday. However, at around 1 am, I heard commotion in the ward and saw the patient’s relatives beating up the resident doctor.”

Dr Mahendra Wadiwalla, medical superintendent, Bhagwati Hospital, said, “There is an injury below his [Dr Ketan] left eye. So we are keeping him under observation for now. But his condition is stable.”

Thrissur medical student recounts her ghastly tale

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Guest article by Christina Elsa Sunny

Hi friends, I am Christina ,31st mbbs batch, currently doing House-Surgeonship in Government medical college, Thrissur.
I am here to disclose what I have experienced on the night of 19 may 2017, that I consider is worthwhile to share.
After completing mbbs course, the authorities have allocated an accommodation on the fourth floor of medical college for all the house surgeons, which includes a mess facility also. Most of us have been utilising the accommodation facility provided by them. Me and my nine friends were staying in this room for the last ten months.
In the premises of this quarters, we have spotted strangers around so many times. Quite unfortunate to say that there is no security provided for all of us and it is an easy access for the strangers to be here by their own or by any other means. There have been many incidents reported in the past of unauthorized access to the ladies rooms and even the attempts of burglary . Even though we have notified of such mishaps, the authorities tended to cast a dubious eye upon us .
Like every other incidents happened around , I paid no extra attention on such matters like most of us. I was much occupied with my duties and my passion to render service to the society.
As I have mentioned earlier, on the night of 19 may 2017,something happened that did shatter my perceptions and my attitude towards the society. We were in deep sleep on that night in our room and my friend got a phone call from casualty and she had to go out immediately.I regret to say that we couldnt lock the room from inside as we were in deep sleep.
On that night, in the midst of my sleep , I felt like something was crawling on to my body and that woke me up suddenly. In the semi darkness, I have seen a hazy figure aged nearly 20 in his shorts about the foot-end of my bed. I screamed my hell out,my friends woke up and came for my rescue. The intruder romped out before we could identify his face. As terrified as it could be , my friends rang our collegiates and some of the boys set forth a quick search in the ‘dark’ corridor and the premises. They could’nt find anyone out there.
The day after , we filed a complaint to our superintendent . They inspected the room and guaranteed as of Some safety measures ‘as usual’. From our side, we the lady house surgeons, planned for a quick protest that we hoped could be an eye opener for the authorities.On the contrary to my expectations, I came to know that even among the girls,we were so divided in protesting against such a serious incident, and some of us are not even aware of the fact that we demand an immediate action for the sake of all the lady housesurgeons and the batches to come by.
Iam not scribbling all these for your support , shares, or your precious likes. it’s only for the sake of my own conscience . WE ARE TOTALLY UNSAFE HERE. We only awake ourselves up when a JISHA OR DELHI INCIDENT happen among us..

Dedicated to all my lady colleagues and juniors..

Increase generic drugs at store: AIIMS RDA

The Resident Doctors’ Association of AIIMS has written to the institute’s administration, highlighting a dire need to increase the number of generic medicines available at its store.In the letter, the association wrote: “Only 230 medicines are available in the store, so we request to increase the numbers of drugs… The agency has written to the AIIMS administration to include 53 most prescribed drugs by AIIMS doctors, but no action has been taken from your side…”

The development comes just days after Prime Minister Narendra Modi said he will bring in a legal framework under which doctors have to prescribe generic medicines.

In their letter, the doctors’ association has written that while they “support” the PM’s decision to prescribe generic medicines, the institute should increase the number of drugs under this category. The letter comes after resident doctors held a meeting with the in-charge of the free generic medicine store at AIIMS.

A generic drug is equivalent to the brand-name product in dosage, strength and the intended use. Manufacture of these generic drugs does not involve a repeat of the extensive clinical trials involved in developing brand-name drugs — hence it costs less to develop them.

Doctors have raised concerns that “only one-sixth of patients at AIIMS are prescribed generic drugs” due to an insufficient number of drugs being included in the generic medicine list.

“Despite being the country’s premier institute, AIIMS still has just 230 medicines under the generic medicine list. The list should include as many as 1,000 medicines. We completely support the PM’s initiative. However, there has to be a system in place, so that doctors start prescribing only generic medicines,” said Dr Vijay Gurjar, president of the association.

“Most importantly, we express concerns regarding the quality of these medicines… If you can ensure it, then doctors at AIIMS can use them without fear,” the letter added.

Doctors also highlighted the need to have more combination medicines for patients who suffer multiple ailments. “Most medicines available are not in combination, which is the need of the hour to decrease the number of pills… Please look into this matter urgently so that we can deliver the benefit of government schemes to the last patient in the row,” the letter stated.

The association informed the administration that they have “prepared the list of available medicines” that should be circulated to each department for “updation”.

Speaking in Surat on April 17, the PM had referred to the Pradhan Mantri Bharatiya Janaushadhi Pariyojana, which aims to provide cheaper medicines to people.

“In the coming days, the government will bring a legal framework under which doctors will have to prescribe generic medicines which are cheaper than equivalent branded drugs, to patients,” he had said.

Doctors won’t treat for charity till govt assures them of protection

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Giving a cold shoulder to the appeal made by Prime Minister Narendra Modi last year, resident doctors in Delhi have decided not to treat any patient for free till the government assures them of protection from frequent assaults by attendants of patients.

In May 2016, Modi had called on to the doctors to give 12 days a year to the poor, pregnant women, free of charge, in a speech to mark the anniversary of his government’s second year in power.

“No doctors working in government, non-government, and societal hospitals will participate in any charitable activity. The PM’s request to look after patients free of cost is hereby denied till he assures safety and security of doctors,” read a notice issued by the Federation of Resident Doctors Association (FORDA), an umbrella body of resident doctors of Delhi.

Recent attacks on resident doctors in Delhi and other parts of the country had sparked a nationwide protest last month. Even in Delhi, more than 2,500 resident doctors have been on a strike since Monday after a doctor and a guard were assualted by a patient’s attendant at Delhi government-run Deen Dayal Upadhyay (DDU) hospital late on Sunday night.

“Doctors are continously attacked by relatives of patients. If the government is keeping its eyes shut, then why should we be concerned about the patients. They are giving no importance to our profession,” FORDA President Dr Pankaj Solanki said.

In Delhi alone in the last 18 months, more than 40 cases of assault on doctors have been reported, and they have gone on a strike as many as 20 times.

IMA to launch online registry to compile cases of violence against doctors

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Taking measures for controlling violence against doctors, Indian Medical Association (IMA) is all set to launch an online initiative that persuades its members to report assault cases of doctors on duty. “The initiative is still under the process of finalization. It will be launched in the next 2-3 days,” said Dr KK Aggarwal, President, Indian Medical Association.

Currently, IMA has over 3 lakh members spread across 36 state branches and 1700 sub-branches. These branches are led by over 35,000 IMA leaders. “These leaders have been asked to report each and every case. The process involves cases to be filed by the branches with evidences such as videos, photos and newspaper clippings, which are then followed by formatting standard complaint and assistance, and then our investigation team will perform root analysis of these cases. We have a complete action plan ready to tackle the issue,” explained Dr Aggarwal.

A similar initiative has already been launched by Medicos Legal Action Group (MLAG), a Chandigarh-based non-profit organisation that seeks to protect and promote the interests of doctors across India. So far, 160 cases of violence against doctors have been registered with them from across the country. The agenda behind such a directory is the creation of data backed legal representation.

“In India, the number of cases of violence against doctors has been increasing with each passing year but we lack data to show it in our legal representations for the issues of our medical fraternity. Currently, we get an average of one case per day of such incidents. Our group is trying to fetch out data that will help us configure how many of these cases have been resolved or withdrawn over the years,” said Dr Neeraj Nagpal, Convenor & Managing Trustee of Medicos Legal Action Group. According to Dr Nagpal, the directory will be updated fortnightly.

Another recent development in the arena has been a meeting of inter-ministerial committee, which recommended the government to enact a central law for cases of violence against doctors. “It has to be made a non-bailable offence for attackers because if patient’s kins are not made afraid of the law and resort to violent actions against doctors on duty, the doctors would have no other option but to flee from the situation to rescue themselves. This can result in other patients getting neglected due to which they can even lose their lives. Then it may become a case of homicide,” Dr Aggarwal asserted while appreciating the committee’s decision.

Dr Nagpal of Medicos Legal Action Group suggested that if any patient’s relatives indulge in any violent activity against a doctor on duty, they should lose rights to seek compensation in consumer or civil courts. “However, to put such petitions forward, we need to prepare strong legal representations and that’s where a registry is required,” he added.

Sharing his opinion on the IMA’s plan to launch the online registry, Dr Dheeraj Aggarwal, Member, Governing Council, Federation of Resident Doctors Association (FORDA), told , “This may help to some extent as over a period the decision will be made and implemented. What concerns us are the immediate measures that are still pending. The action should be taken now.”

Dr Aggarwal also talked about the possibility of doctors in Delhi going on a strike. “FORDA has again announced a strike in Delhi at the wake of another recent assault on a doctor-on-duty, which happened at DDU Hospital,” he said.

File report on resident doctors’ working conditions: HC to Maharashtra

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The Bombay High Court today directed the Maharashtra government to file a report on the working conditions of resident doctors in state-run hospitals and medical colleges, days after their strike against repeated incidents of assault on them.

After looking at photographs of some government hospitals, a division bench headed by Chief Justice Manjula Chellur said, “This shows that overall conditions are deplorable.”

The bench asked the state government to file a report on working conditions of doctors at B J Medical College in Pune, Government Medical Colleges in Miraj and Ambejogai in Beed, and J J hospital in Mumbai.

The bench also asked the state to inform it about the steps it has taken to improve or rectify the situation.

The bench was hearing a petition filed by activist Afaq Mandaviya seeking action against doctors, who had gone on mass leave last week to protest attacks on them.

Nearly 4,000 resident doctors across Maharashtra had stayed away from work for several days since March 20, demanding enhanced security in the wake of a string of attacks on doctors by patients’ relatives.

They had called off their stir five days later following an ultimatum by the Bombay High Court and Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis.

The Maharashtra Association of Resident Doctors (MARD) today informed the court that doctors, who abstained from duty last week, had resumed work.

The HC had earlier directed the doctors to resume work immediately and hoped that their demands would be settled amicably with the state government.

The state’s Advocate General Rohit Deo had informed the HC last week that the government has decided to deploy an additional 1,100 armed police personnel from Maharashtra State Security Corporation at all the state and civic-run hospitals.

“The first lot of 500 police personnel will be deployed at hospitals in Mumbai on April 5, while the remaining 600 will be deployed at hospitals across the state by April 30. This will be in addition to the already deployed policemen at the hospitals,” Deo had said.

The petition was posted for further hearing after two weeks.

A doctor’s life: Overworked and disillusioned, resident doctors are fast losing hope

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Overworked and disillusioned, resident doctors are fast losing hope, which in turn could spell the death knell for India’s rickety public healthcare system

It is 6 am and Arvind*, a second-year paediatric resident doctor at Mumbai’s KEM hospital has just woken up. The workday will soon begin. The only problem is he has no clue how long it will be — it could go up to as much as 36 hours.

For starters, from 8 am to around 12.30 pm, he will examine patients at the hospital’s Out Patient Department (OPD), which gets more than 800 of them on a daily basis.

Next, those patients who need to be admitted will have to be attended to. 2 pm onwards, he will have to man the emergency ward, which in any case is always teeming with patients.

On the days that Arvind is ‘on call’, his shift will end only after 12 noon the next day.

“There are times we sleep on the stretchers in the operation theatres. We carry our brushes with us. Returning to our rooms is a luxury on most days,” he says.

But that is better than sleeping during surgeries because that happens, too. “That is the only time we are not disturbed for extended period of an hour or two,” said another resident doctor on condition of anonymity.

Ironically, the few days that post-graduate medical students — or residents — got a break from work was when they went on strike late last month to protest working conditions, particularly physical attacks against them, usually by relatives of patients.

Brickbats, not bouquets

Late in March, the public healthcare system in Maharashtra and, briefly, in Delhi, came to a crashing halt when resident doctors took leave en masse to protest a string of attacks against their peers in other parts of the state.

The provocation was the brutal beating of Dr Rohan Mhamunkar, 31, in Dhule’s Government Medical College after an altercation with relatives of a patient; the resident, an orthopaedic doctor, he was beaten to within an inch of his life, and is likely to lose vision in one eye.

The incident led Maharashtra’s 4,500 resident doctors to go on mass leave till they felt secure enough to work, even as reports of more attacks against doctors poured in.

Soon, the Indian Medical Association (IMA), with 40,000 doctors as members — many of them former resident doctors — joined the agitation, which ended only after assurances from both Maharashtra’s Chief Minister Devendra Fadnavis as well as the Bombay High Court, and promises of a 1,100-strong security force for public hospitals.

But despite the imminent danger to their lives in the line of duty, the resident doctors became instant villains for making poor patients suffer. But that is only part of the story. After all, violence at the hands of frenzied relatives of patients is only of the many problems residents must face.

One for all, none for one

A resident’s travails start with the abysmal doctor-patient ration, sometimes as high as 1:200 during peak hours in some wards. “Most paediatric patients are accompanied by four to five relatives,” Arvind points out. It’s a ratio that has the doctors not just outnumbered but scared for their safety should things not go the way the families want.

The patients are often the poorest of the poor, who have no option but the country’s almost free, if doddering, public healthcare system. The resident doctors are here after having cleared a rigorous entrance test, beating thousands of competitors.

Patients coming to the tertiary hospitals like the KEM or Sion hospital are often from far flung areas, usually exhausted by the effort of accessing some sort of healthcare. The overworked doctors, too, have little patience left to focus on communication. It is an incendiary combination.

“Everyone thinks doctors are their slaves. Educated citizens and journalists are questioning us. What people are not trying to understand is that it is the government that has failed to deliver,” said Richa*, a second year resident doctor at KEM.

Multi-tasking machines

During her endless shifts, Richa does more than just attend to patients. She fills forms for the patients, many of whom are unlettered, fetches test results, and even shifts patients around for an X-Ray or a CT scan — all jobs that ward boys are supposed to do.

“On a good day a ward brimming with over 100 patients will have one senior nurse, one junior nurse and one ward boy, provided no one is on leave,” Richa* shares.

The acute shortage of ancillary staff is wearing down doctors.

‘On call’ days are the worst. It means that the resident doctor has to be available through the night. On such days the work stretches up to 36 hours and every resident doctors is ‘on call’ at least once a week in most hospitals.

At peripheral hospitals grappling with shortage of doctors though the number could be as high as 3 times in a single week.

And the room that they retire to, if they ever have the opportunity, is anything but welcoming. Four to five residents in the first year are often cramped in a 100 sq-feet room.

“There are times when the first year students don’t get a room till seniors vacate it in which case they have to share a side room near a hospital ward. Eight to nine residents occupy it at a stretch at times,” another resident doctor from KEM said.

In critical condition

Depression, too, is widespread. “We leave our personal lives behind us at 18. My mother wants me to get married but where is the time? Unless you find someone who is also a doctor, it is almost impossible to manage,” says Richa. Yes, they are willing to serve the patients but don’t they deserve a shot at a normal life, most ask.

Arvind says almost everyone in his family is a doctor — 30 in all — working across the world. “But they don’t have lives like these,” he points out. Not surprisingly, he is waiting to get out of the public healthcare system once he clears his residency.

And therein lies a huge problem. The system is so gruelling that the best leave the first chance they get.

Dr Aadil Chagla, neurosurgeon, KEM hospital, while clarifying that he does not believe in strikes, sympathises with the residents.

“The hospitals are far from clean and that also means that the people at the end of the food chain suffer the most. One must realise that the condition of the resident medical doctors is abysmal.”

Dr Girish Sawant, a gynaecologist who now works in the private sector, has horror-inducing memories. “When I interned at KEM one decade back there would be 60 patients in a ward and three to four resident doctors would be waging a war.”

“If we continue to be so apathetic then it will only lead to the downfall of our health care system,” asks Dr Pranali Ahale, gynaecologist at the Jogeshwari Trauma Care Hospital.

And yet, amidst the bleakness, the lack of a personal life, poor compensation and being treated badly, there are the occasional moments of light. As Richa explains: “When someone gets better and even acknowledges our effort, it makes up for all the hard work.”

(*Names have been changed to protect identity)


  • How long is the course: 36 months
  • How much do they make: Around 40,000
  • MBBS course: 5.5 years
  • Preparation for PG entrance: 1-3 years
  • Post Graduation (MD/MS): 3 years
  • 1-year compulsory service in government hospital
  • A year of preparation for super-speciality
  • MCH/DM: 3 years